Robust secularism and intellectual independence reached its height in Niccolo Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini Three great masters— Leonardo da VinciMichelangelo and Raphael—dominated the period known as the High Renaissance, which lasted roughly from the early s until the sack of Rome by the troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Spain in Petrarch and Ficino were urban European renaissance of the very urban phenomenon we call the Renaissance.
What is most remarkable about this age of scholarship is the enthusiasm which pervaded all classes in Italy for antique culture.
Northern humanists and artists, however, found more in life than beauty or structure. Be healthy in mind and in body. Thirteenth-century[ edit ] In the 13th century, much of Europe experienced strong economic growth. Why did the Renaissance occur? Bernard travelling along the shores of Lake Leman, and noticing neither the azure of the waters nor the luxuriance of the vines,nor the radiance of the mountains with their robe of sun and snow, but bending a thought-burdened forehead over the neck of his mule - even like this monk, European renaissance has passed, a careful pilgrim, intent on the terrors of sin, death, and judgment, along the highways of the world, and had not known that they were sightworthy, or that life is a blessing.
Sculptors and painters combined with architects to cut the arts loose from their connection with the Church by introducing a spirit and a sentiment alien to Christianity.
Foremost among northern humanists was Desiderius Erasmuswhose Praise of Folly epitomized the moral essence of humanism in its insistence on heartfelt goodness as opposed to formalistic piety.
This pagan attitude had been lost for about one thousand years, when Europe followed the warning of Augustine against becoming too engrossed in earthly affairs, lest assurance of successful entry into the New Jerusalem be jeopardized.
They yearned for magnificence and instinctively comprehended splendor. Next comes the age of acquisition and of libraries. Aristotle just had to go. Generally speaking, the Renaissance spanned from the 14th to the 16th centuries, spreading across Europe from its birthplace in Italy.
In the hands of men such as Leonardo da Vinci it was even a sciencea means for exploring nature and a record of discoveries. In this period some important innovations of the Middle Ages came into their own, including the revival of urban life, commercial enterprise based on private capital, banking, the formation of states, systematic investigation of the physical world, Classical scholarship, and vernacular literatures.
Petrarch was more interested in the glories of this world. The extinction of feudalism, the development of the great nationalities of Europe, the growth of monarchy, the limitation of the ecclesiastical authority, and the erection of the papacy into an Italian kingdom, and in the last place the gradual emergence of that sense of popular freedom which exploded in the Revolution: During the Middle Ages a few students had possessed the poems of Vergil and the prose of Boethius - and Vergil at Mantua, Boethius at Pavia, had actually been honored as saints - together with fragments of Lucan, Ovid, Statius, Cicero, and Horace.
Though Michelangelo considered himself a sculptor first and foremost, he achieved greatness as a painter as well, notably with his giant fresco covering the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, completed over four years and depicting various scenes from Genesis. The best of the past, not the nascent future, was his main concern.
The Protestant Reformation, in the hands of a man like Martin Luther, was not a moral movement -- neither was it a didactic movement. In the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and then the Normans. Commerce demanded a money economy in place of the older barter system.
To depreciate the work achieved for humanity during the Middle Ages would be ridiculous. And although Thomas Aquinas was certainly no pagan and clearly no devotee of the Goliards, it is also clear that he embraced his own brand of humanism.
It essentially means to revive, revisit or reinvigorate and could therefore be applied to many societies, to describe different stages of their histories Many parts of Europe underwent a period of renaissance between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age.Renaissance, (French: “Rebirth”) period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages and conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in Classical scholarship and values.
The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic. Renaissance Humanism: Humanism is the term generally applied to the predominant social philosophy and intellectual and literary currents of the period from to The Italian Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento [rinaʃʃiˈmento]) was a period of European history that began in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th century (), marking the transition from the Medieval period to agronumericus.com French word renaissance (Rinascimento in Italian) means "Rebirth" and defines the period as one of cultural.
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History of Europe - The Renaissance: Few historians are comfortable with the triumphalist and western Europe-centred image of the Renaissance as the irresistible march of modernity and progress.
A sharp break with medieval values and institutions, a new awareness of the individual, an awakened interest in the material world and. the lead in the Renaissance was that Italy possessed a language, a favorable climate, political freedom, and commercial prosperity, at a time when other nations were still semibarbarous.Download